Exam 2 - Term Paper Example Learning by human beings may be a result of training, education, schooling, or personal growth. Psychology studies how learning occurs in various contexts of life. Additionally, learning may be a result of observation, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning. This paper will look at how amateur soccer players learn to be better players than they are in regard to the three learning approaches. Three students, John, Peter, and James, had just joined high school. The three were extremely passionate about soccer and had the desire to join the school soccer team. John, Peter, and James frequently attended the teamâ€™s training sessions. The level of skill and performance of the team were greater than what the three students had, but they were still eager to join. John improved as a player through observational learning, Peter improved through classical conditioning, and James through operant conditioning. Observational learning occurs as a result of observation, retention, and replication of another personâ€™s behavior, in most cases a role model. For behavior to be imitated, the observer should pay attention to the behavior of his or her role model. Additionally, the observer should retain the behavior in the memory and finally replicate what he or she had learned from the model. The observer should have the skill to reproduce the modelâ€™s action. ... stimulus, which brings forth an expected response; unconditioned response, which is a natural response to the unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus formed after the association between a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus; and conditioned response, the learned response to the earlier stimulus that was neutral. Whenever Peter saw soccer balls (Unconditioned Stimulus) during the training sessions, his urge to practice would increase (Unconditioned Response). Moreover, when he would hear a whistle (Conditioned Stimulus) being blown, he would feel like going (Conditioned Response) to the pitch to play. On the other hand, operant conditioning entails increasing or decreasing the probability of behavior due to the outcome. It involves a stimulus, response, and reinforcement (Ormrod 123). James attended every training session with the aim of improving and getting a place in the team. Whenever he completed tasks (response) in training, the coach would praise (reinforcement) him. This made him improve his skills and general performance. Several brain parts assist in the process of learning. There are those that control learning parts and those involved in the same learning parts. Storage of information is a must for learning to be conducted. The temporal lobe organizes information, speech, and memory. It helps in retrieving memory, images, and accurate information. The amygdala helps in the organization and storage of emotion related memories. It also determines the memories to be stored and organizes all the memories storage. The hippocampus helps in creating memories that are new. It makes concepts and fits experiences into the concepts. The frontal lobe solves problems, judgment, memory, language, and personality control. Skills to solve problems and think
In this report, I am going to describe and explain the recruitment and selection process and the different stages that the business has to go through when filling a vacantly Recruitment is when an organisation identifies a vacancy and from the range of applicants that require a job, the organisation employ the best candidate from the application forms received to fill the vacancy in order for the business to run efficiently. Selection is when all the applicants are shortlisted and from them, the employer chosen the best candidate for the job role.
The human resources (HR) department are required to work for the organisation by recruiting, training staff also motivating them to work hard in the business. If the employees are trained and recruited correctly, it would show that the business is successfully operating. There are also many other tasks the HR department do such as giving employees promotions and a wage/salary boost, annual appraisals and other employee benefits.
Recruitment can be internal or external depending on the job role and the vacancy being filled. Internal recruitment is when an employee already within the business fills a vacancy rather than employing someone outside the business. The vacancy for internal recruitment can be advertised by putting up notice boards, on the intranet and it can also be discussed during staff meetings on who would be the best person to fill the vacancy.
The advantages of recruiting internally in the business are that when performing an induction for them, it will not be as difficult because the employee would be familiar with the business workplace and surroundings also it is quicker and less expensive than recruiting someone externally because the amount of candidates is already been narrowed down to certain employees inside the business.
The disadvantages if recruiting internally is that the person filling the vacancy from inside the business may not have all the required skills and qualifications to perform the job effectively and by recruiting someone externally offers a versatile range of skills, qualities, experience and qualifications. External recruitment is when someone from outside the business is employed to fill a vacancy. This is a more common approach when recruiting as there is a larger range of candidates that have different skills and abilities. There are many ways to recruit externally.
Most businesses will advertise using media such as the internet, newspapers, company newsletters and magazines. Another way to recruit is to go to the job centre and tell them that the company has a vacancy and eventually there will be a range of different candidates with different levels of experience, qualifications and skills. The advantages of using external recruitment are that a wider audience can be reached which increases the chance that the business will be able to recruit the skills it needs also the disadvantages mentioned for internal recruitment are advantages of external recruitment.
The disadvantages of external recruitment are firstly even if the new employee has all the experience and skills required for the job, he may not be able to adapt to the businesses system and therefore will take longer to familiarize with the workplace and the employees however with internal recruitment, you would not have this problem. During the recruitment process, candidates must go through seven different stages before a suitable candidate can be chosen and made an employee in the business. This applies to both internal and external recruitment.
The seven stages are: 1) Identify a vacancy â€“ This is when the business makes it known that a job is available and currently vacant so this could be because an employee has either left the business and this could be for a number of different reasons for example One reason could be that they have had a disagreement and there has been conflict between them and the owner or manager or another reason could be because they have had a better offer from a different business and they are receiving a better wage or salary.
Recruitment does not have to be permanent as female employees could be on a maternity leave or an employee could be sick for a long time so they will need someone to cover for them while they return to their job and in these cases, most businesses would internally recruit someone and the advantages of this are itâ€™s quicker and causes less hassle. Human resources will need to formally agree with the department that is requiring an employee to fill the vacancy so a replacement can be searched for immediately.
Since recruiting employees cost a large amount of money, the business will only hire employees if it is absolutely vital for their business to run efficiently as the money could be spent on other parts of the business such as paying off any bills or ordering stock. 2) Draw up a job description â€“ This is when the job is described in detail so firstly, the name of the job or job title.
This is important because it gives a brief ideas of what the job involves e. g.if the job that is a marketing director, the candidates applying for the job will know what they are applying for just from the name. Marketing means to advertise the products and make sure the customers are aware of what products the business offers and persuade them to buy it. Some job titles may change over time such as in schools, the head teacher may chance to principal or head master to give a different feel to the job and possibly increase the prestige and responsibility of the job.
Job description also includes employment conditions such as how much the employee will get paid and how many hours a work so for example a cashier could get i 5. 50 per hour so if they work 8 hours a week for 6 days then they will receive ai 264 a week. The employee will also need to know how much pay they will receive and that depends on whether the business pays an annual salary or wages every week. If the employee is temporarily working then they may receive the same pay as the employee they are covering for e. g. john is a cashier who earns i
7 an hour and he is off sick long term so an internal employee is recruited and will receive the same pay until john is healthy and fit enough to work again. The business will be looking to recruit someone that not only matches the job description but also has additional qualities which will make them be more conspicuous. Finally, the job description will include duties and responsibilities that are involved in the job and have to be performed on a daily basis so the applicants will understand how important the job is and how hard they will have to work.
Job security is another element in the job description which will tell the employee how long they are being employed for because not all jobs are permanent as mentioned before, employers can just temporarily fill a vacancy and once that person returns to their job, the temporary employee will have to leave the job. The job description will also have a large variety of candidates all after the same job with different skills and traits. This is an example of a job description.
It shows what the job is (which is a technical support engineer), the required skills but also useful and desirable extra skills which could be the difference to whether they are recruited or not and the qualifications and experience are required also. The desired skills mention what experience they have so has the candidate worked before and if so how long for, education is their school, college and university placements and what they have achieved in the time they have spent there also the work status is what type of job they like as there is part- time which is only a couple of hours so no more than 30 hours in a week.
full-time work is over 30 hours a week and this shows that they may in the job for a long time and the befits of working full time are that the organization will provide you with annual leave, sick leave and health insurance also the hours they work are more flexible however, the most popular and more rewarding benefit is the fact that full time workers will get paid more money that part time workers because they are dedicating more time to the business.
3) Draw up a person specification â€“ This is when the employer entails the physical, mental and any other requirement requirements that a candidate needs in order to perform the tasks effectively and successfully such as training and experience e. g. if the business was to be a chauffeur, the person applying for the job would probably need a long driving career which would show that they have a lot of experience and also be able to drive under pressure and quickly.
P000rofessional qualifications such as GCSEâ€™s and A-level qualifications such as GCEâ€™s will also be required to show they have a thorough understanding of the job and may make it easier for them to perform the job e. g. an accountant will need a range of different qualifications so the requirements may be that they will need a Degree, preferably in maths, accountancy, business studies, economics or finance. However, it is possible to become an accountant with lower school qualifications.
Without A Levels it is possible to acquire the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) qualification, which is fully recognised in the trade. Office juniors can work up to accountant level, but you have to have GCSEs and preferably A Level to begin with. Qualifications show that the candidate has been studying in recent years and are prepared for them job they are going to apply for. Experience is also required in the person specification as it could be the different to whether a candidate is employed or not.
Having a high level of experience in a certain field of work will show that the candidate is well trained and has the acquired skills for the job and also shows that they will require less training e. g. if the job being applied for was a cashier, someone who has already worked in other businesses undertaking the same job role will know what they are doing so they donâ€™t need a very detailed induction and require less training also they may be able to generate a higher income perform their tasks more efficiently.
A candidate new to the field of work may find it more difficult to get the job will sufficient experience as they may have never done this job before however they me able to bring new ideas or if they have performed similar jobs then they can use that knowledge to perform the job as a cashier. Candidates must also have competence which is the ability of a person to perform tasks and take on certain responsible.
The more competent a person is, the better they can perform their duties e. g.a business would rather have a more competent employee that can do their job to a high standard by producing quality output results such as high sales or revenue because it would prove more successful in the long run also having a incompetent employee would require the business to waste their time and money training them especially if they are young candidates who have possibly just finished their education or have finished a degree. The advantages of having a competent employee are that they are reliable for getting their task done efficiently and are resilient to their job.
The disadvantage could be that since they may be extremely good at one job but if told to perform a different task they may struggle as it may not play to their strengths e. g. if the job was a reporter, and the employee was very competent in their job but then their manager asks them to illustrate their findings in a more abstract such as creating a presentation, this does not work well for them as they may be so accustomed to writing reports that they donâ€™t have a clue how to create a presentation and this is a disadvantage for competent employees as they donâ€™t offer that versatility.
Essential skills will have to be met in order to get the job such as in a call centre, the person will definitely need fluent communication and also be responsive to customer calls. Essential skills are what an employee should have in order to complete the job and if they donâ€™t have the essential criteria then they may be rejected. They can also have personal or desirable skills such as being able to work a computer effectively so they can type up emails quickly rather than constantly calling or being able to co-operate in a team and possibly even lead a team to successfully complete a task or assignment.
They are not absolutely necessary but will help them and make them look like a stronger candidate so they may be a possibility that they are shortlisted and interviewed. The criteria from the person specification are important when shortlisting the candidates as only the best will be put through to the interview stage and then finally accepted. This is an example of a person specification for film co-ordination and development.
It shows what skills are compulsory or essential and what skills are optional or desirable and can help candidates when it comes to shortlisting as they are more likely to be chosen than a different person who has fewer additional skills. Candidates must be versatile and not just resilient for the job. The job shows that in the qualifications category they need a couple of A-level or equivalent qualifications but there are also desirable skills they could have such as GCSEâ€™s in the field of work possibly drama.
It shows that the candidate must have a minimum of 2 yearsâ€™ experience and be able to manage finances and use ICT well however they can also have desirable skills such as being able to manage and supervise staff. Personal aptitude and skills are general skills that a candidate should have or either picked up from past jobs and experience such as communication and teamwork skills. Disposition is something that would be useful to have and would possibly make their job more enjoyable. Any other requirements can be helpful as it would also make them a stronger candidate.
4) Advertise the Vacancy â€“ This is when the vacancy is publicised and the business try to get unemployed people to apply for the job. One way to advertise the job is to put it on a local newspaper as they are read by many business men and women so the business can receive a few applicants that are in need of a job and have scanned through a newspaper and found one. The advantages of this are that it will be read by a variety of people and hopefully attract more candidates. The job advertisement is written by the personnel department similarly when marketing a product.
The presentation of the advertisement is important as the candidates will receive their first impressions from it and will judge whether it is good or not and also whether they would like to work for the business. On the advertisement it should include the description of the job and mention the main requirements, where the job is going to be located so the candidates know where they will work, how much salary they are expected to receive however it may not be the exact amount on the advertisement as it may vary, address and contact numbers if necessary and the company logo.
The more detail that is put into the advertisement the better and more informative it will be however making the advertisement too long can make it look unprofessional. This is an example of a job advert for royal mail and as a job advert should, it includes all the important details such as the job title, company name, contact details and their salary. However it may not look very appealing. This advert is just to make sure that the general public is aware of the job and if anyone is interested and they meet the requirements then they may apply and possibly get shortlisted for an interview.
5) Shortlist the applicants â€“ when short listing, the applications that were most appealing and may be considered for the job are listed by the human resources department. It is drawn up by using criteria from the person specification such as qualifications and experience that the candidate has to see if it is enough for them to be able to handle the new job they are applying for also any other skills and attributes they have acquired through other job would be helpful for the candidates.
The selection process will begin and the employer will be looking to fill the vacancy with the best candidate amongst the applications. They will then all be individually contacted so an interview can be arranged. The candidates can be informed in many different ways such as â€˜letters of initiationâ€™ in which a brief document is sent to notify the candidates about whether they will be called up for an interview.
The suitable candidates will be those who meet the exact criteria of the job description so for example if the job was to be a IT technician and the job description required them to have 5 years experience working in a ICT related firm and also the business may ask for certain qualifications such as a degree in computing and A-Levelâ€™s in Maths and IT to a grade B standard. Those who meet these requirements will be shortlisted as suitable candidates because they meet the exact requirements or are slightly above these requirements however they are not guaranteed to get the job but have a good chance.
There is then possible candidates which may meet some of the requirements such as they may have the qualifications but not enough experience which could then mean if they are employed, they will have to go thorough a comprehensive induction programme and be well trained by a more experienced technician and this could cost the business a lot of money but on the other hand they may have some characteristics that other candidates donâ€™t have such as they may be more able to speak multiple languages which could be helpful because the business may communicate with other countries on a regular basis with suppliers an customers.
Finally those candidates who do not meet the requirements will be rejected and can no longer continue in the recruitment process. This can be down to a number of reasons with the most obvious being that they do not meet the requirements or they have provided false details. The job description and person specification must be used as the basis for short-listing. 6) Interview the applicants â€“ The interviewer must also be prepared when interviewing the candidates that have been shortlisted.
They will need to come up with a set of questions to ask the candidates and this can either be done themselves or they can get a panel of from the human resources department to do interview. The questions that are set must be asked to all candidates in the same manner as it states in the equal opportunities requirements policy. Since this will be the first time that the employer and candidate meet face-to-face, they will need to make a good impression by greeting them with a warm welcome and shaking hands is a good way to start a mutual relationship with the employer since the interview may be appointed the vacancy.
The interviewer or panel will have a list of criteria to see how the candidate compares to the requirements for the job. It is essential that the interviewers carry copies of the candidateâ€™s application forms, curriculum vitae and to support this, a covering letter will be required. To get the best out the candidates being interviewed, they must be relaxed and be able to answer questions calmly and correctly so the interview knows everything they need to know about the candidate and their personality.
Questions in the interview should be have a mixture of open and closed questions and will be predetermined and should be all-round such as asking about previous jobs or company such as: 1) What do you think of the last company you worked for? 2) Why did you join your previous company? 3) Did they live up to your expectations? 4) Why are you leaving now? 5) What did you earn in your last job? Also asking questions relating to the new job / company such as:
1) Why do you want this job? 2) What qualities do you think will be required for this job? 3) What can you contribute? 4) What interests you about our product (or service)? 5) What can we (the new company) A list of questions could be asked relating to the candidate such as: 1) How do you handle criticism? 2) How would you describe yourself? 3) How would others describe you? 4) Do you consider yourself successful? 5) What was your greatest success?
Body language and posture is also important during an interview as candidates are not just judged on their communication skills. The interviewer and the candidate want it run as smoothly as possible and both should sit in the correct way such as having their feet firmly on the floor and using gestures with hands if necessary For it portrays that youâ€™ve difficulties controlling your anxiety about the interview process if the candidate is not seated comfortably. Making good eye contact with the candidate being interviewed is very crucial.
The feeling of not getting the intervieweeâ€™s attention can be frustrating and will give the wrong impression to the interviewer. When asked a question that the candidate finds difficult and requires time to think, it is not good to frown. Facing the question with a smile proves that youâ€™re composed at stressful situations. When closing the interview, the candidate should possibly raise any questions they have for the job role or about the business they will be working for however, there shouldnâ€™t be a long time spent asking questions as can get tedious.
The interviewer should then politely thank the candidate for appearing and answering the questions they have been asked and hope they have a safe journey home. 7) Select and Appoint the Best Candidate â€“ this is the final stage of the recruitment process were candidates have been interviewed everything is taken into account and the interview is then evaluated. The employer will select the candidate that has been exceptional throughout the process and has been rated highly in all areas.
The candidate will be contacted via a telephone call to notify them that they have got the job and then it is up to the candidate on whether they would like to fill the vacancy and if they accept, they will have to make a formal offer and if it goes according to plan, the candidate and the employer will meet formally to finalise the process of recruitment and formally agree on the job however, the employer will want references before the candidate takes on the job. This is known as the appointment stage.
Once they have been contacted and recruited into the business, They are expected to start their new job however, if the chosen candidate should refuse the job then the business will require the second best candidate to step forward and they will be contacted immediately to inform them of what has happened and why the decision has changed. For the unfortunate candidates that have not got the job and have been rejected, the will be provided with feedback on why they have not been employed and how well their interview went.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.